Sample Collection in Ontario, Round 1

Over the last few weeks, work on Dating Iroquoia really kicked off in earnest. Megan, a research assistant with our University of Georgia team, flew to Ontario to collect samples for our first round of radiocarbon dating, which we hope to submit before the end of the year. The sites we were sampling from were housed at 4 different facilities across the province: University of Waterloo (Waterloo), University of Toronto Mississauga (Mississauga), ASI Archaeological and Cultural Heritage Services (Toronto), and Sustainable Archaeology McMaster (Hamilton).

In all, we collected about 130 samples from 9 sites. This might sound like a lot of samples (and, to be fair, it is!) but we need to date many secure contexts from each site to really understand its internal chronology, which will then help us understand how the sites fit in time in relation to one another. We also collected a few more samples than we strictly need for the first round of dating, so that we have more samples on hand to date if we are able to.

The vast majority of the samples we brought home were carbonized maize kernels (Zea mays), although we also ended up with some maize cob fragments, some bramble seeds (Rubus sp.), a hawthorn seed (Crataegus sp.) and some beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). We mainly targeted the carbonized remains of short-lived plants, and here is why: we know that annual plants were only alive for a short period of time, which means that the time difference between the “oldest” carbon and “youngest” carbon in each kernel or seed is not very large. This reduces the chances that the carbon we end up dating represents the plant’s early life, rather than the time at which it was harvested and died.

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We also collected two other kinds of artifacts for radiocarbon dating: animal bone and charcoal.  These materials can provide dates that are just as precise as botanicals, but we have to be very careful in our selection of samples.  For animal bone, we had to make sure that we only sampled bone where we could absolutely identify the species of the animal it came from, and we couldn’t sample from any species that are aquatic, or which consume a lot of aquatic resources.  This is because of the marine radiocarbon reservoir effect,which traps older carbon 14 in deep water. This means that radiocarbon dates on organic material from aquatic species (like shell or fish) or species that consumed aquatic resources (like raccoons or some birds) require corrections, which aren’t part of our current research plan– although that would be an interesting and useful direction for future research!

For charcoal samples, we selected pieces of bark or chunks of charcoal that otherwise include the outermost rings of the tree, which formed closest to when the tree died.  Charcoal is a great material to use for radiocarbon dating, because it is often abundant on archaeological sites. But, because trees grow out in successive layers, there can be a difference of hundreds of years between dates taken from innermost and outermost rings of the same tree. We’re interested in when the tree died (and was presumably used by the people who felled it), so we were looking for those outermost layers.

This is just the first collection trip for the project. Samantha, the team’s Cornell-based research assistant, is travelling to the Rochester Museum and Science Center in Rochester, New York later this week on a sample selection scouting mission, and she’ll be collecting our first round of New York samples from that facility soon.

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Dating Iroquoia: an overview

Between AD 1400 and 1600, societies of Iroquoian-speaking peoples living in what is now Southeastern Canada and the northeastern United States underwent profound changes. They built and lived in larger towns than they ever had before; they engaged in conflict with each other and with neighboring nations; they developed complex ways to cooperate and make decisions as a group; and they entered into the global economy.

Basically, people’s daily lives changed, massively.

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Interior of a reconstructed Iroquoian longhouse. Photo: Wikimedia Commons

But when and how, exactly, did these changes occur? Did they happen gradually, bit-by-bit, at different times in different communities? Or all at once, spurred on by some geopolitical event or common cultural watershed? Did people of one generation live in the same kind of town that their parents did? Were they safer, with more social resources? Did they make a living the same way, and follow the same yearly rhythms as generations had before? These are the kinds of questions that archaeologists around the world wonder, but are generally not able to answer.  By combining existing archaeological data with new chronological models constructed using hundreds of new AMS radiocarbon dates, we are going to answer some of these questions, and rethink how we understand the historical development of fifteenth and sixteenth-century in Northeastern North America.

Over the past century, archaeologists have excavated dozens of Iroquoian villages in Ontario and New York. The artifacts, maps, and notes from these excavations are stored in museums and archives throughout the northeast. We’re going to choose samples of burned plants and bone from these sites and date them using AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometer) dating.  This isn’t new, of course—archaeologists have been using AMS dating for decades. What our project is going to do, though, is use those dates to create high-precision Bayesian chronological models (a process which we’ll explain in a later post). These models will tell us, with a high degree of certainty, when each particular site was occupied. This will then allow us to consider how those occupations relate to one another and to broader historical trends in the Iroquoian world.

Iroquoian sites are perfect for this kind of research because, for the most part, they were only occupied for a few decades. This means that we should be able to get a very precise understanding of when each site was founded, how long people lived there, and when it was abandoned, which will make it easier to put them in chronological order. Our goal is to date forty-two Iroquoian village sites, from six different areas in Southern Ontario and New York. Then, we’re going to use these new chronologies to reinterpret the trends we see in other kinds of archaeological data—tracking changes in the size and internal configuration of sites; in the amounts and kinds of European goods found on sites; in the evidence for conflict with neighbors and far-flung groups; which will help us develop new insights about the lived experience of social change in Iroquoian societies between AD 1400-1600.

 

Announcing “Dating Iroquoia”

Welcome! This is the official blog for Dating Iroquoia, an NSF-funded, collaborative research project between researchers at Cornell University and the University of Georgia. We’re going to use this space to share our progress on this multi-year, multi-institution project. We’ll keep you posted as we collect samples, send them off to the lab, construct models from them, and try to figure out what it all means. We’ll eventually collect all of the data and publications we produce here, too.

This post is just to launch the blog and website: expect periodic updates in the near future. In the meantime, check out the “About the Team” page to learn more about us, and the “About the Project” page to learn more about what we plan on doing.